The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan as a supreme legislative
body of regional representation
Republic of Uzbekistan
|«The Republic of Uzbekistan consists of regions (viloyats), districts (tumans), cities (shahars), urban
villages, villages (qishloqs), and settlements (auls), as well as the Republic of the Karakalpakstan»
(From Article 68 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
A general country profile
Territory: 447.4 thousand sq. km.
Population: 27 million
Capital: city of Tashkent
Geographical location: The Republic of Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia, between two large rivers namely Syr-Darya and Amu-Darya. It borders with Kazakhstan in the north and northwest, Kyrgyzstan in the east, Tajikistan in the southeast, Afghanistan in the south and Turkmenistan in the southwest.
Uzbekistan occupies more than 11% of the territory of Central Asia, and 41% of total population of Central Asia lives in Uzbekistan.
Major cities: Samarkand, Namangan, Andijan, Nukus, Bukhara, Kokand, Karshi, Termez, Ferghana, Margelan, Urgench, Navoi, Shakhrisabz, Khiva, Djizzak, Gulistan.
National and international holidays: Independence Day (1st September), Constitution Day (8th December), New Year’s day (1st January), International Women’s Day (8th March), Navruz (21st March 21), Memory and Remembrance Day (9th May), Teachers Day (1st October), Eid-Al-Fitr (Roza hayiti), and Eid-Al-Adha (Qurban-
Hayit) celebrated on the corresponding days of each year.
Climate: very continental which is manifested by dramatic changes in day time and night time as well as summer and winter temperatures. July is the hottest month of the summer. The average temperature during this period is about 30-40 degrees above zero. In the winter time the temperature may go down to 8 degrees below zero. The average annual rainfall is 250-300 mm.
Natural resources: Large amounts of mineral deposits as well as more than 100 types of mineral raw materials have been discovered Uzbekistan belongs to the top ten of natural gas producing countries.
The largest areas of natural gas are located in the Kashkadarya and Bukhara regions. Uzbekistan produces 40% of all natural gas extracted in the territory of the Central Asia.
The country is also rich in deposits of copper, silver, gold, lead, zinc and tungsten. For example, gold is extracted in 41 fields such as Muruntau, Marjonbuloq and Chodaq. The Muruntau goldfield is the largest in Eurasia and the country holds 8th place in the world for gold extraction. There are also large prospected resources of salts, aluminum raw material, facing stones, jewels, iron, chrome, manganese and certain types of rare metals on Uzbek territory. There are plenty of coal deposits sfor example the Angren, Shargun and Boysun coal fields.
Uzbekistan extracts 55% of all coal extacted in Central Asia. Uzbekistan also is one of the largest cotton and silk producers and exporters in the world. About 75% of cotton growing in Central Asia falls to Uzbekistan, the country holds 4th place in cotton production and the second place in export of cotton fibre in the world.
Industrial potential: car making, aviation, gas-oil-extraction and processing, chemical, light and heavy industries and other branches of economy are successfully functioning in the country.
Agricultural sector: Uzbekistan’s agricultural sector is based on irrigated cropping. In recent years, one third of all cultivated areas have beenallocated for cotton cropping. Approximately the same area is allocated for the cultivation pf grain mostly for wheat. The remaining lands have been allocated for growing potatoes, vegetables,
fruit, cucurbits crop, grape, tobacco and feed crops.
Tourism: the country has a huge tourism potential. Over 300 thousand tourists a year visit Uzbekistan from all over the world. They go to well- known historical cities such as Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, Kokand, Margelan, Shakhrizabz and Termez.
Demographic features: Uzbekistan has the highest birth rate and the third largest population CIS countries surpassed only by Russia and the Ukraine. The average annual population growth is about 300 thousand. There are representatives of 130 ethnic groups such as Russians, Ukrainians, Tajiks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Karakalpaks, Koreans, Tatars, Turkmens, Uygurs, Jews and others in the country.
National Currency: Uzbekistan’s currency is Soum (UZS).
Partnership of Uzbekistan: Uzbekistan is a member of the United Nations (since March 2, 1992), being a participant country of the CIS, Uzbekistan is also a member of international organizations such as Eurasia Economic Organization, Shangai Cooperation Organization, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Islamic Conference Organization, OSCE and others. Uzbekistan is also preparing for WTO membership. The country cooperates closely with the IMF which confirms that paymentsare made regularly every year, macroeconomic development and steady rates of the GDP growth, increase of export and gold and currency reserves of Uzbekistan.
Favorable conditions for foreign investors have been created, which have attracted more than USD 20 billion of foreign investments to Uzbekistan. This has also meant new joint projects with foreign partners and a greater integration of Uzbekistan within the global market.
In accordance with the Constitution, the Republic of Uzbekistan is a sovereign state with a presidential form of government. The Republic of Uzbekistan is on the path to building a democratic society governed by the principles of separation of powers, rule of law and protection of human rights.
Legislative branch of power: As of 2007, Parliament is composed of the following:
- Senate of the Oliy Majlis (the upper chamber of parliament) - 100 senators;
- Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis (the lower chamber of parliament) - 120 deputies;
- Djokarghi Kenes (parliament of Karakalpakstan) - 86 deputies;
- Kengashes of people’s deputies of regions and the city of Tashkent (across the country) - 734 deputies;
- Kengashes of people’s deputies of cities subordinate to the region (across the country) - 806 deputies;
- Kengashes of people’s deputies of regions (across the country) – 4,494 deputies.
All above mentioned important developments in the Republic of Uzbekistan have occurred with the active participation, all-round support of representative bodies of local authorities, senators and deputies at all levels.
The principal body of the executive branch of state power is the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. At the local level the executive branch is represented by khokimiats (administrations) of regions, cities, and districts.
The judicial branch of state power is made up of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Economic Court, and their structural divisions at a local level.
In administrative-territorial terms the Republic of Uzbekistan consists of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and 12 regions: Andijan, Bukhara, Djizzak, Kashkadarya, Namangan, Navoi, Samarkand, Surkhandarya, Syrdarya, Tashkent, Khorezm, Fergana and the city of Tashkent.